Hydrogeologic and Hydrochemical Maps of the Buraydah Quadrangle, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

SGS-OF-2012-5 Hashim M. Al-Hawsawy, Hassan H. Al-Shorbaji, Adel A. Ashgar, Ayman M. Ba-Mufleh, Majed H. Al-Lihyani, and Mazen Abu Abdullah
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ABSTRACT
A hydrogeologic and hydrochemical inventory was made for the Buraydah quadrangle through a survey of 259 out of identified 765 wells. The distribution of wells depends mainly on the water-bearing properties of the geologic formations. Most of the groundwater wells are located in deep aquifers and some in shallow aquifers.  The study area is underlain by Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks of the western edge of the sedimentary basin that occupies the Arabian shelf. The sedimentary rocks crop out in a homocline and have been previously assigned to the following formations: Saq Sandstone (Cambrian? to Early Ordovician), Qasim (Ordovician), Zarqa and Sarah (Late Ordovician to Early Silurian), Tayyarat (Silurian), Khuff (Late Middle(?) Permian to Early Triassic), Sudair Shale (Early Triassic), Jilh (Middle to Late Triassic), Minjur Sandstone (Late Triassic), Marrat (Early Jurassic), Dhruma (Middle Jurassic), Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone (Middle Jurassic), Hanifa (Late Jurassic), Jubaila Limestone (Late Jurassic), Wasia Formation (Late Cretaceous), and Aruma Formation (Late Cretaceous). The Tertiary Ajfar formation and Quaternary deposits unconformably overlie the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequence.  Most of the groundwater resources are found in deep aquifers and, to a minor extent, in alluvial aquifers within the surficial deposits. Aquifer recharge occurs mainly from surface water runoff infiltration within outcrops during the rainy season. Chemical analyses of groundwater  show a predominance of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate type groundwaters with a relatively high salinity of more than 2,700 mg/l in most areas, which seem to be much higher according to Saudi standards.

Al-Hawsawy, H.M., Al-Shorbaji, H.H., Ashgar, A.A., Abu Abdullah, M., Ba-Mufleh, A.M., and Al-Lihyani, M.H., 2013, Hydrogeologic and hydrochemical maps of the Buraydah quadrangle, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Saudi Geological Survey Open-File Report SGS-OF-2012-5, 46 p., 23 figs, 12 tables, 2 apps, 2 pl.